EVOLUTION: FACT OR PHILOSOPHY?

by Jan Young


SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING

Asimov, Isaac. Beginnings. New York: Walker and Co., 1987.

Asimov, Isaac. How Did We Find Out About the Beginning of Life? New York: Walker & Co., 1982.

Creation magazine. Creation Science Ministries, P.O. Box 6330, Florence, Kentucky, 41022.

Denton, Michael. Evolution: A Theory in Crisis. Bethesda, Maryland: Adler & Adler, 1985.

Fisher, David E. The Origin and Evolution of Our Own Particular Universe. New York: Athenium, 1988.

Huse, Scott M. The Collapse of Evolution. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1983.

Ipcar, Dahlov. The Wonderful Egg. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1958.

Jastrow, Robert. The Enchanted Loom: Mind in the Universe. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981.

Johnson, Phillip E. Darwin on Trial. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1991.

Kramer, Stephen P. How to Think Like A Scientist: Answering Questions by the Scientific Method. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987.

Macbeth, Norman. Darwin Retried. Boston: Gambit Incorporated, 1971.

Morris, Henry M. and Gary E. Parker. What is Creation Science? El Cajon, CA: Master Books, 1982.

Noorbergen, Rene. Secrets of the Lost Races. Indianapolis/New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1977.

Newell, Norman D. Creation and Evolution: Myth or Reality? (Series: "Convergence." Series Editor: Ruth Nanda Anshen) New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.

Origins and Design. (journal of the “intelligent design” movement)

Pope, Joyce. Living Fossils. Austin, Texas: Steck-Vaughan Library, 1992.

Sunderland, Luther D. Darwin's Enigma. Santee, CA: Master Book Publishers, 1988.

Velikovsky, Immanuel. Stargazers and Gravediggers. New York: William Morrow & Co., Inc., 1983.

Weiner, Jonathan. The Beak of the Finch: A Story of Evolution in Our Time. New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1994.

_____________________________

GLOSSARY

adaptation Modification of an organism by natural selection, fitting it more perfectly for existence in its environment.

Big Bang theory The theory that the universe originated naturalistically from the explosion of the cosmic egg.

biogenetic law The supposed tendency for the evolutionary stages of an organism to appear during the development of the embryo.

catastrophe A violent and sudden change in a feature of the earth.

catastrophism The belief that most of the earth's features formed in a relatively short period of time and are, for the most part, the result of catastrophes.

chaos A state of confusion, lacking organization, order, sequence or predictability.

cosmic egg A tiny speck of super-dense matter which exploded in the Big Bang and expanded to form all the matter in the universe.

directed panspermia The theory that life did not originate on earth, but was sent here from an extra-terrestrial civilization.

element One of more than 100 fundamental substances that make up all matter; its atoms are all of the same kind, and it cannot be broken down into any simpler substance.

embryology The study of the development of the embryo in organisms.

extinct Having died out completely, leaving no survivors.

extrapolate To project or extend known observations into an unobserved time period, either future or past, so as to arrive at speculative knowledge of that unobserved time period, based on the assumption that there is a continuity between the observed and the unobserved times.

evolution The process of change.

fact An actual happening that can be known with certainty.

first law of thermodynamics Mass/energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another.

fossil Remains of a plant or animal of past geologic times that has been preserved in the earth's crust.

geologic column A hypothesized sequence of all the earth's strata.

geologic timetable A diagram showing the chronological arrangement of the strata of the geologic column, covering the entire history of the earth.

geology The branch of science dealing with the history of the earth as recorded in the rocks.

gradualism The concept of slwo gradual change taking place at uniform rates.

half-life The length of time it takes for half the atoms of a radioactive substance to decay.

homogeneous Uniform, consistent, showing no variation.

homology Similarity due to evolutionary relationship.

Hubble constant The rate at which the universe is expanding.

hypothesis A tentative proposition which can be tested against known facts.

igneous rock Volcanic rock.

index fossil A fossil found only in rocks in a specific time period, which may be used to identify other rocks from that period.

living fossils Living plants or animals that have not changed since they appeared in the fossil record.

macroevolution Major evolutionary change, bringing about change between species, genera, orders, families, classes and phyla.

microevolution Minor evolutionary change, such as within a species.

mutation The recombination of existing genetic material or the loss of a gene.

natural selection Survival of the fittest; the process by which organisms with certain beneficial traits are thought to leave more offspring and pass on those beneficial traits.

naturalistic Characterized by a world view in which everything may be explained by natural causes, and which denies supernatural causes.

neo-Darwinism The modern version of Darwin's theory of evolution, incorporating mutations as the means of change; Darwin's original theory did not contain this element because he was not aware of the laws of genetics.

probability The branch of mathematics concerned with studying how likely it is that an event will occur, considering all the possible outcomes.

punctuated equilibria The theory that life did not evolve slowly and gradually, but rather that long periods of equilibrium were occasionally punctuated by rapid change.

radioactive dating A method of dating rocks by measuring the half-lives of radioactive elements.

recapitulation The supposed tendency for the evolutionary stages of an organism to appear during the development of the embryo.

redshift A shifting of the galaxy's light toward the longer wavelengths of the spectrum, in proportion to the speed of the galaxy.

relative dating Dating method in which a higher stratum is considered younger in relation to a lower stratum, and a lower stratum is considered older in relation to the higher stratum.

science Knowledge; classified or systematized knowledge.

scientific method The accepted procedures used in the pursuit of knowledge: 1)Collect data, 2)analyze data, 3)formulate a hypothesis, 4)test hypothesis many times, 5)report findings to others.

second law of thermodynamics All systems, left to themselves, run down, decay, become more disorderly.

sedimentary rock Sediment that has hardened into rock.

self-organization A hypothetical law which, if it existed, would have the opposite effect of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, leading to increasing organization and complexity.

species The biological classification below genus.

spontaneous generation The origin of life from non-life.

stasis Absence of change.

strata Layers of sedimentary rock (singular--stratum).

tautology A meaningless, redundant statement.

theory A working hypothesis, not conclusively established as scientific law.

theory of evolution The theory that life began spontaneously and gradually developed into more complex forms; that all life forms are the result of natural selection, mutations, and random change acting over long periods of time.

transitional forms All the stages of an organism which lie between the true types, and showing the step-by-step changes by which one type evolved into another type.

uniform processes Processes that operate at slow, gradual, fairly consistent rates.

uniformitarianism The belief that most of the earth's features formed slowly and gradually over long periods of time by processes acting in essentially the same manner as presently observed.

vestigial organs Useless organs left over from earlier evolutionary stages.

___________________________

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Amato, Ivan. “Tics in the Tocks of Molecular Clocks.” Science News, Vol. 131 (Jan. 31, 1987), pp. 74-75.

Angier, Natalie. “Drafting the Bombardier Beetle.” Time, Feb. 25, 1985, p. 70.

------ “Scientists Ask: Why Not More Asexual Reproduction?” The Fresno Bee, May 17, 1994, p. A8.

Asimov, Isaac. Beginnings. New York: Walker and Co., 1987.

------ How Did We Find Out About the Beginning of Life? New York: Walker & Co., 1982.

------ In The Beginning. New York: Crown Publisher, Inc., 1981.

Austin, Steven A. “Excess Argon within Mineral Concentrates from the New Dacite Lava Dome at Mount St. Helens Volcano.” Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3 (1996), pp. 335-343.

------ "Fossils, Flood and Fire." Audiotape of lecture, Fresno, Calif., 1988.

------ "The Grand Canyon: A Creationist View." Audiotape of lecture, Fresno, Calif., 1988.

------ , ed. Grand Canyon: Monument to Catastrophe. Santee, Calif.: Institute for Creation Science, 1994.

------ "Is the Earth Really Billions of Years Old?" Audiotape of lecture, Fresno, Calif., 1988.

------ "Mount St. Helens: A Challenge to Believe." Audiotape of lecture, Fresno, Calif., 1988.

------ "Mount St. Helens and Catastrophism." Impact, No. 157 (July 1986), pp. i-iv.

------ "Origin of Limestone Caves." Impact, No. 79 (January 1980), pp. i-iv..

Baker, Sylvia. Bone of Contention. Hertfordshire, England: Evangelical Press, 1976.

Barinaga, Marcia. “’African Eve’ Backers Beat a Retreat.” Science, 7 Feb. 1992.

Barlow, Connie and Tyler Volk. “Gaia and Evolutionary Biology.” BioScience, Vol. 42, No. 9 (Oct. 1992), pp. 686-93.

Batten, Don. "A Whale of a Tale?" Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal, Vol. 8, Part 1 (1994), pp. 2-3.

Begley, Sharon. "The First Americans." Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991, pp. 15-20.

Behe, Michael J. Darwin’s Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution. NY: The Free Press, 1996.

Berlinski, David. “The Deniable Darwin.” Commentary, Vol. 101, No. 6 (June 1996), p. 19. Database: General Reference Center. Library: Cooperative Libraries Automated Network.

Berlitz, Charles. Mysteries From Forgotten Worlds. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1972.

Bliss, Richard B. "Evolutionary Indoctrination and Decision-Making in Schools." Impact, No. 120 (June 1983), pp. i-iv.

Bosveld, Jane. “Life According to Gaia: Cooperation, Not Competition, May Drive Evolutionary Diversity on Earth.” Omni, Oct. 1991, pp. 67- 70.

Boxer, Sarah. “Will Creationism Rise Again?” Discover, Oct. 1987, pp. 80-85

Brand, Leonard. “Catastrophes and Earth History.” Geoscience Reports, No. 17 (Winter 1994), pp. 1-4.

------ “Fossil Giants of the Ancient World.” Geoscience Reports, No. 15 (Fall 1992), pp. 1-4.

Brush, Stephen G. "How Cosmology Became a Science." Scientific American, August 1992, pp. 62-70.

Campbell, Neil A. “Resetting the Evolutionary Timetable.” BioScience, Vol. 36, No. 11, pp. 722-27.

Coffin, Harold. Origin by Design. Hagerstown, Maryland: Review and Herald Publishing Assoc., 1983.

Cowen, Ron. “Searching for Cosmology’s Holy Grail: Hubble Telescope Joins a Constant Battle.” Science News, Vol. 146, No. 15 (Oct. 8, 1994), pp. 232-34.

Crick, Francis. The Astonishing Hypothesis. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1994.

Croswell, Ken. “A Milestone in Fornax.” Astronomy, Oct. 1995, pp. 42-47.

Culotta, Elizabeth. “Forcing the Evolution of an RNA Enzyme in the Test Tube.” Science, Vol. 257 (31 July 1992), p. 613.

Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species. New York: The New American Library of World Literature, 1958.

“Darwin’s Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, Michael J. Behe.” Publisher’s Weekly, Vol. 243, No. 25 (June 17, 1996), p. 54. (book review) Database: General Reference Center. Library: Cooperative Libraries Automated Network.

Dawkins, Richard. The Blind Watchmaker.´ New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1986.

De Camp, L. Sprague and Catherine Crook de Camp. The Day of the Dinosaur. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1968, p. 171.

Denton, Michael. Evolution: A Theory in Crisis. Bethesda, Maryland: Adler & Adler, 1985.

DeYoung, Donald B. Astronomy and the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1989.

Dorozynski, Alexander. “Possible Neandertal Ancestor Found.” Science, Vol. 262 (12 Nov. 1993), p. 991.

Dunne, Philip. “Dissent, Dogma and Darwin’s Dog.” Time, Jan. 15, 1990, p. 84.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1989.

“Europe’s First Settlers: Late Shows.” Science News, Vol. 146, No. 15 (Oct. 8, 1994), p. 235.

“Fastest Trench in the West.” Discover, Sept. 1995, pp. 30-31.

"The Face of God, Take 2." Discover, Dec. 1993, p. 34.

Ferrell, Keith. “The Chasm of Creationism: You can bet that we haven’t heard the last of the creationists.” Omni, Oct. 1991, p. 14.

Fisher, David E. The Origin and Evolution of Our Own Particular Universe. New York: Athenium, 1988.

Fischman, Joshua. “Cannibal Carnage.” Discover, Jan. 1992, p. 42.

------ "A Closer Look at the Dinosaur-Bird Link." Science, Vol. 262 (24 December 1993), p. 1975.

------ “One That Got Away.” Discover, Jan. 1992, p. 73.

Flamsteed, Sam. “In the Cosmos.” Discover, March 1995, pp. 66-77.

Folger, Tim. “Primordial Landlubbers.” Discover, April 1994, pp. 28-29.

"Fossil Revisionism." Scientific American, Oct. 1986, p. 84-88.

Franks, Robert H. "Vestigial Organs." Creation, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 22-24. (n.d.)

Freedman, David H. "The Handmade Cell." Discover, August 1992, pp. 46-52.

------ "Molding the Metabolism." Discover, August 1992, pp. 36-45.

Freedman, Wendy L. "The Expansion Rate and Size of the Universe." Scientific American, November 1992, pp. 54-60.

“French Get a Head in The Fossil Hunt.” Science, Vol. 261 (17 Sept. 1993), p. 1525.

"The Genesis War." Science Digest, Oct. 1981, pp. 82-87.

“Geology.” Paper supplied by National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1992, 14 pp.

Gibbons, Ann. “Ernst Mayr Wins the Japan Prize.” Science, Vol. 266 (21 Oct. 1994), p. 365.

------ “The Mystery of Humanities Missing Mutations.” Science, Vol. 267 (6 January 1995), pp. 35-36.

------ “Rewriting—and Redating—Prehistory.” Science, Vol. 263 (25 Feb. 1994), pp. 1087-88.

Gish, Duane T. "Big Bang Theory Collapses." Impact, No. 216 (June 1991), pp. i-iv.

------ "The Mammal-Like Reptiles." Impact, No. 102 (December 1981), pp. i-iv.

------ "Multivariate Analysis." Impact, No. 29, pp. i-iv. (n.d.)

------ "The Origin of Mammals." Impact, No. 87 (September 1980), pp. i-iv.

Glausiusz, Josie. “The All-Importnat Zipper.” Discover, Sept. 1995, p. 34.

Gould, Stephen Jay. “Darwinism Defined: The Difference Between Fact and Theory.” Discover, Jan. 1987, pp. 64-70.

------ “Of Tongue Worms, Velvet Worms, and Water Bears.” Natural History, Jan. 1995, pp. 6-15.

------ Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1989.

Greene, Edward J., Chief of Interpretation and Visitor Services, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Letter, Dec. 16, 1992.

Gribbin, John. In Search of the Big Bang. New York: Bantam Books, 1986, pp. 120, 195-213.

Hamblin, W. Kenneth. Earth’s Dynamic Systems. 6th edition. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1992.

Hardin, Garrett and Carl Bajema. Biology: Its Principles and Implications. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Co., 1978.

Hayward, Alan. Creation and Evolution: Rethinking the Evidence from Science and the Bible. Minn., MN: Bethany House Publishers, 1985.

Henig, Robin Marantz. “Evolution Called a ‘Religion,’ Creationism Defended as a ‘Science.’” BioScience, Vol. 29, No. 9 (Sept. 1979), pp. 513-16.

Hoeveler, J. David, Jr. “Inside Creationism.” Science, Vol. 258 (16 Oct. 1992), pp. 487-88. (book review of The Creationists: The Evolution of Scientific Creationism by Ronald L. Numbers)

Hoffman, Paul. "Fowl Play." Discover, May 1992, p. 4.

Horgan, John. “Early Arrivals.” Scientific American, Feb. 1992, pp. 17-20.

------ “The Intellectual Warrior. Profile: Karl R. Popper.” Scientific American, Nov. 1992, pp. 38-44.

------ “The Worst Enemy of Science. Profile: Paul Karl Feyerabend.” Scientific American, May 1993, pp. 36-37.

Huse, Scott M. The Collapse of Evolution. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1983.

Ipcar, Dahlov. The Wonderful Egg. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1958.

Jamieson, Evan. "Do Ancient Stalactites Really Exist?" Creation, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Dec. 1993-Feb. 1994), p. 15.

Jastrow, Robert. The Enchanted Loom: Mind in the Universe. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981.

------ Red Giants and White Dwarfs. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1979.

Jayawardhana, Ray. “The Age Paradox.” Astronomy, June 1993, pp. 39-43.

Jennings, Peter. “ABC World News Tonight,” April 24, 1996.

Johnson, Phillip E. Darwin on Trial. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1991.

------ Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1997.

------ Reason in the Balance: The Case Against Naturalism in Science, Law & Education. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1995.

Judson, Sheldon and Marvin E. Kauffman. Physical Geology. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall, 1990.

Julien, Pierre Y., Colorado State University, and Guy Berthault, Ecole Polytechnique De France. “Fundamental Experiments on Stratification.” Videotape. (n.d.)

Kerr, Richard A. “A Bigger Death Knell for the Dinosaurs?” Science, Vol. 261 (17 Sept. 1993), pp. 1518-19.

------ “Evolution Made Visible.” Science, Vol. 267 (6 Jan. 1995), pp. 30-34.

Kirshner, Robert P. "The Earth's Elements." Scientific American, October 1994, pp. 59-65.

Kramer, Stephen P. How to Think Like A Scientist: Answering Questions by the Scientific Method. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987.

Labandeira, Conrad C., Bret S. Beall, Francis M. Heuber. "Early Insect Diversification: Evidence from a Lower Devonian Bristletail from Quebec." Science, 11 November, 1988, pp. 913-916.

Labandeira, Conrad C. and J. John Sepkoski, Jr. “Insect Diversity in the Fossil Record.” Science, Vol. 261 (16 July 1993), pp. 310-14.

Larson, Roger L. “The Mid-Cretaceous Superplume Episode.” Scientific American, Feb. 1995, pp. 82-86.

Lemonick, Michael D. "How Man Began." Time, March 14, 1994, pp. 78-87.

------ “Rewriting the Book on Dinosaurs.” Time, April 26, 1993, pp. 43-49.

Lenski, Richard E. and John E. Mittler. “The Directed Mutation Controversy and Neo-Darwinism.” Science, Vol. 259 (8 January 1993), pp. 188-193.

Lerner, Eric J. The Big Bang Never Happened. New York: Random House, 1991.

Levinton, Jeffrey S. “The Big Bang of Animal Evolution.” Scientific American, Nov. 1992, pp. 84-91.

Lewin, Roger. “The Earliest ‘Humans’ Were More Like Apes.” Research News, Vol. 236 (29 May 1987), 1061-63.

------ “Evidence for Scientific Creationism?” Science, Vol. 228 (17 May 1985), p. 837.

------ “A Response to Creationism Evolves.” Science, Vol. 214 (6 November 1981), pp. 635-38.

Lieberman, Myron. Public Education: An Autopsy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Longley, Clifford. “Academic Big Bang as Car Exhausts and Creation Collide.” London Times, April 8, 1994, p. 23.

Lubenow, Marvin. "The Apple (Computer) Bites African Eve." Impact, No. 229 (July 1992), pp. i-iv.

Lumsden, Richard D., of Institute of Creation Research, Santee, Calif., speaking on “It Is Written,” television program, March 24, 1994.

Macbeth, Norman. Darwin Retried. Boston: Gambit Incorporated, 1971.

Martin, Brian P. World Birds. Enfield, Middlesex, Great Britain: Guiness Books, 1987, pp. 7-8.

Massare, Judy A. "Ancient Mariners." Natural History, Sept. 1992, pp. 49-52.

McCollister, Betty. “Creation ‘Science’ is Dishonest.” The Humanist, July/August 1990, pp. 31-32.

McGowen, Tom. The Great Monkey Trial: Science Versus Fundamentalism in America. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990.

McKerlie, Paula. "The Taung Skull: 'missing link'?" Creation, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Dec. 1993-Feb. 1994), pp. 16-17.

Menon, Shanti. “Insects of the Oxygeniferous.” Discover, Sept. 1995, p. 32.

Merrill Earth Science. Lake Forest, Ill.: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill (Glencoe Division), 1993.

Miller, Kenneth R. “Life’s Grand Design.” Technology Review, Feb/March 1994, pp. 25-32.

Miller, Kenneth R. and Joseph Levine. Biology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1993.

Moment, Gairdner B. and Helen M. Habermann. Mainstreams of Biology. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Co., 1977.

Monastersky, Richard. "Mysteries of the Orient." Discover, April 1993, pp. 39-48.

------ "The Lonely Bird." Science News, Vol. 140 (Aug. 17, 1991), pp. 104-105.

“Monster Mollusk.” Discover, Sept. 1995, p. 30.

Morell, Virginia. “How Lethal Was the K-T Impact?” Science, Vol. 261 (17 Sept. 1993), pp. 1518-19.

Morris, Henry M. and Gary E. Parker. What is Creation Science? El Cajon, Calif.: Master Books, 1982.

Morris, John D. "Does the Geologic Column Prove Evolution?" Back to Genesis, July 1994, p. iv.

------ "Evolution of Life Experiments." Acts & Facts, Sept. 1992, p. 8.

------ "Has the Big Bang Been Saved?" Back to Genesis, June 1992, p. iv.

------ "How Can a Geology Professor Believe That the Earth is Young?" Back to Genesis, May 1991, p. iv.

Mouw, Richard J. “Science with Baloney Detectors.” Christianity Today, Dec. 8, 1997, pp. 48-50. (book review of Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds by Phillip E. Johnson and Redeeming Culture: American Religion in an Age of Science by James Gilbert)

Nash, J. Madeleine. "How Did Life Begin?" Time, Oct. 11, 1993, pp. 69-74.

------ “Jeepers! Creepy Peepers!” Time, April 3, 1995, p. 61.

Nebergall, William H. and Frederic C. Schmidt. General Chemistry. Boston: D. C. Heath and Co., 1959, p. 421.

Newell, Norman D. Creation and Evolution: Myth or Reality? (Series "Convergence," Series Editor Ruth Nanda Anshen) New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.

Niessen, Richard. "Starlight and the Age of the Universe." Impact, No. 121, 1983, pp. i-iv.

Noorbergen, Rene. Secrets of the Lost Races. Indianapolis/New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1977.

Oliwenstein, Lori. “Lucy’s Walk.” Discover, January 1995, p. 42.

------ “Onward and Upward?” Discover, June 1993, pp. 22-23.

------ “Royal Flush.” Discover, Jan. 1992, p. 72.

O’Neill, Luke, Michael Murphy, and Richard B. Gallagher. “What Are We? Where Did We Come From? Where Are We Going?” Science, Vol. 263 (14 Jan. 1994), pp. 181-183.

Orgel, Leslie E. “The Origin of Life on the Earth.” Scientific American, October, 1994, pp. 77-83.

“Origins of Diversity.” Discover, June 1995, p. 28.

Page, Thornton and Lou Williams Page, eds. The Origin of the Solar System. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1966, pp. 5-6, 313-315.

Pain, Stephanie. “Modern Hunter-gatherers No Guide to Stone Age Past.” New Scientist, 20 Feb. 1993, p. 8.

“Paradises Lost.” Discover, Sept. 1995, p. 31.

"Parallel Computer Simulates Early Universe." Astronomy, June 1993, p. 18.

"Patriarch of the Aviary." Time, Aug. 25, 1986, p. 50.

Peterson, Ivars. “Universe in a Drop: Cosmology in the Liquid Laboratory.” Science News, Vol. 146, No. 16 (Oct. 15, 1994), p. 248.

Poirier, Jules and Kenneth B. Cumming. "Design Features of the Monarch Butterfly Life Cycle." Impact, No. 237, (March 1993), pp. i-iv.

Pope, Joyce. Living Fossils. Austin, Texas: Steck-Vaughan Library, 1992.

Radetsky, Peter. “Speeding Through Evolution.” Discover, May 1994, pp. 83-87.

Ramsey, William L., Lucretia A. Gabriel, James F. McGuirk, Clifford R. Phillips, Frank M. Watenpaugh. Holt Earth Science. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Publ., 1986.

Ramsey et al. Holt Life Science. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Publ., 1986.

Raup, David M. The Nemesis Affair: A Story of the Death of Dinosaurs and the Ways of Science. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1986.

Rennie, John. "Profile: Ernst Mayr, Darwin's Current Bulldog." Scientific American, Aug. 1994, pp. 24-25.

Riordan, Michael and David N. Schramm. The Shadows of Creation: Dark Matter and the Structure of the Universe. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co., 1991.

Rossbacher, Lisa A. Recent Revolutions in Geology. New York: Franklin Watts, 1986.

Rybka, Theodore W. "Consequences of Time Dependent Nuclear Decay Indices on Half Lives." Impact, No. 106 (April 1982), pp. i-iv.

Sagan, Carl. “The Search for Extraterrestrial Life.” Scientific American, October 1994, pp. 93-99.

Sawkins, Frederick J., Clement G. Chase, David G. Darby and George Rapp, Jr. The Evolving Earth. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1978.

Scheven, Joachim. "Living Fossils." Creation, Vol. 16, No. 2 (March-May 1994), p. 6.

Schneider, David. “It’s Getting Easier to Find a Date.” Scientific American, Feb. 1995, pp. 18-20.

Sheler, Jeffery L. with Joannie M. Schrof. “The Creation.” U.S. News & World Report, Dec. 23, 1991, pp. 56-64.

Shipman, Pat. “On the Origin of Races.” New Scientist, 16 Jan. 1993, pp. 34-37.

Shreeve, James. "The Dating Game." Discover, September 1992, pp. 76-83.

------ “Design for Living.” New York Times, Aug. 4, 1996, p. 8. (book review of Darwin’s Black Box by Michael Behe)

------ “Going South.” Discover, Jan. 1992, pp. 42-43.

------ “Human Origins.” Discover, Jan. 1993, p. 28.

------ “The Neanderthal Peace.” Discover, Sept. 1995, pp. 70-81.

Sidey, Ken. "Scientific American Drops Christian Writer with Creation Beliefs." Christianity Today, November 19, 1990, p. 56.

Silk, Joseph. The Big Bang. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co., 1989, pp. 31-60, 143, 169-203.

Sitchin, Zecharia. Genesis Revisited. Santa Fe, N. M.: Bear & Co. Publishing, 1991, pp. 135-157.

Slusher, Harold S. "Some Recent Developments Having to Do with Time." Impact, No. 27 (Sept. 1975), pp. i-iv.

Smith, Bradford A. "New Eyes on the Universe." National Geographic, January 1994, pp. 2-41.

Sobel, Dava. "Man Stops Universe, Maybe." Discover, April 1993, pp. 20-21.

Stafford, Tim. “Naturalism on Trial.” Christianity Today, January 8, 1996, pp. 42-44. (book review of Reason in the Balance by Phillip Johnson)

Steele, DeWitt. Science: Matter and Motion. Pensacola, Fl.: A Beka Book Publications, 1981.

Stringer, Christopher B. “The Legacy of Homo sapiens.” Scientific American, May 1993, pp. 138-41. (book review of Origins Reconsidered: In Search of What Makes Us Human by Richard Leakey and Roger Lewin)

Sunderland, Luther D. Darwin's Enigma. Santee, Calif.: Master Book Publishers, 1988.

Svitil, Kathy A. “Mighty Microbes.” Discover, Feb. 1994, p. 25.

Swanson, Scott. “Debunking Darwin? ‘Intelligent-design’ movement gathers strength.” Christianity Today, January 6, 1997, pp. 64-65.

Tattersall, Ian. “Evolution Comes to Life.” Scientific American, Aug. 1992, pp. 80-87.

“Turning Out-of-Africa Inside Out?” Science, Vol. 262 (24 Dec. 1993), p. 1963.

Velikovsky, Immanuel. Earth in Upheaval. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1955.

------ Stargazers and Gravediggers. New York: William Morrow & Co., Inc., 1983.

Verschuur, Gerrit L. “In the Beginning: The Milky Way Galaxy.” Astronomy, Oct. 1993, pp. 40-45.

Waldrop, M. Mitchell. "Spontaneous Order, Evolution, and Life." Science, 30 March, 1990, pp. 1543-45.

"War Shrine Like a Limestone Cave." Creation, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Dec. 1993-Feb. 1994), p. 15.

Weinberg, Steven. The First Three Minutes. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, 1977.

Weiner, J. S. The Piltdown Forgery. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1980.

Weiner, Jonathan. The Beak of the Finch: A Story of Evolution in Our Time. New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1994.

Weisburd, S. "Oldest Bird and Longest Dinosaur." Science News, Aug. 16, 1986, p. 103.

Wheeler, David L. “A Biochemist Urges Darwinists to Acknowledge the Role Played by an ‘Intelligent Designer.’” The Chronicle of Higher Education, Nov. 1, 1996, p. A13-16.

Whitcomb, John C., Jr. and Henry M. Morris. The Genesis Flood. Philadelphia: The Presbyterian and Reformed Publ. Co., 1961.

Wieland, Carl. "Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria." Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1 (1994), pp. 6-7.

------ "Evolutionary Faith and the Cosmic Zoo." Creation, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Sept.-Nov. 1993), pp. 20-21.

------ "Exploding Evolution." Creation, Vol. 16, No. 2 (March-May 1994), pp. 38-39.

Wilford, John Noble. "Scientists Bug-Eyed Over New Fossil Find." The Fresno Bee, Fresno, Calif., Nov. 12, 1988.

Williams, Alexander R. "'Oldest' Hominid Footprints Show No Evolution!" Creation, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Sept.-Nov. 1993), p. 32.

Wise, Kurt. Phone conversation, October 10, 1995.

Woodward, Thomas. "A Professor Takes Darwin to Court." Christianity Today, Aug. 19, 1991, pp. 33-35.

------ “Meeting Darwin’s Wager.” Christianity Today. April 28, 1997, pp. 14-21.

Wright, Robert. "Science, God and Man." Time, Dec. 22, 1992, pp. 38-44.

Wuethrich, B. “Scientists Upset Insect Orthodoxies.” Science News, Vol. 144 (July 17, 1993), p. 38.

Zimmer, Carl. “Back to the Sea.” Discover, Jan. 1995, pp. 83-84.

------ “Coming Onto the Land.” Discover, June 1995, pp. 118-127.

------ “Masters of an Ancient Sky.” Discover, Feb. 1994, pp. 42-54.

------ “A Reptile Rookery.” Discover, June 1995, pp. 32-33.

------ "Ruffled Feathers." Discover, May 1992, pp. 44-54.

------ “The Smoking Crater.” Discover, Jan. 1992, p. 48.

Zindler, Frank R. “The Wild, Wild World of Creationism.” American Atheist, July 1992, pp. 20-28.


Copyright 2003 Jan Young

Return to Table of Contents

Return to Jan Young--Author